Geometry sources (beakers, bottles, filters)
The products shown on these pages are representative sources used for common applications. If you cannot find the product with your specifications, please contact us using the corresponding email contact on this website. In most cases we will be able provide you with a solution meeting your requirements. You can also use our product request forms.
This section describes calibrated single and mixed radionuclide sources in different geometries for the energy and efficiency calibration of gamma ray spectrometers.
A range of sources simulating different samples, for example, charcoal filters and gas standards, is also shown. The sources listed in this section are supplied with a certificate of the German Calibration Service.
If a reference source is needed to match your particular sample, please specify your requirements using the form at the end of this section.
Please select one of the product groups listed below:
- Marinelli beakers (incl. empty beakers)
- Bottles (incl. empty bottles)
- Rod (Line) Sources
- Custom geometries
- Nuclide Mixtures
Mixed or single radionuclide solutions are incorporated homogeneously into a plastic resin which is then poured into the container and allowed to set. The active resin is normally covered by a layer of inactive resin. A lid is fixed to the container to make a sealed, solid, source. Gas equivalent sources are prepared by combining the active solution with plastic foam.
High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry is widely used for identifying and assaying gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in environmental samples. To meet the requirements of quality management systems, the spectrometers should be calibrated using reference sources that are traceable to national standards. The reference sources must also match as closely as possible the geometry, density and composition of the sample to be assayed. This range of ready-for-use geometry reference sources has been developed to meet these requirements. The advantages of this type of source are:
- No source preparation needed -saves time and resource
- No dilution of solutions needed -calibration is directly traceable to national standards
- No dispensing of strong acids for dilution is needed -source is safer to handle
- Sealed source -no risk of contaminating sensitive equipment
- Stable source -will not deteriorate over time
- Source checked for homogeneity -consistent, accurate, results year after year
- Matches closely the samples to be measured – can be prepared in your own container with a wide range of densities from gas equivalent (0.02g/cm3) to cement (3g/cm3)
- Layout of certificate of calibration matches the requirements of commercial gamma ray spectrometry software – calibration easy and quick to carry out
- Wide range of commonly used beakers or bottles available -short delivery times
- Custom geometry -to meet your special requirements (please allow longer delivery times)
For mixed radionuclide reference sources, each radionuclide is assayed individually using a method which is traceable to national standards. The mixed solution is then prepared, and checked by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The solid reference source is then manufactured using the mixed radionuclide solution, and the final source is checked again for accuracy and homogeneity by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.
The sources are calibrated at Eckert & Ziegler Nuclitec´s DKD accredited measurement laboratory in Germany. The manufacturing facility operates a quality management system which has been independently audited and approved to ISO9001:1994.
The reported uncertainty is based on a standard uncertainty multiplied by a coverage factor k=2, providing a level of confidence of approximately 95% (see section 9.2).
The sources are traceable to standards held by national laboratories such as the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany), the National Physical Laboratory (UK), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA), the Laboratoire Primaire des Rayonnements Ionisants (France), and many other national laboratories world-wide. Further details are given in section 9.1.
Each source listed in this section is supplied with a DKD certificate of calibration which states:
- Reference time and date
- Activity of main radionuclides and/or gamma-ray emission rates of main gamma-energies
- Activity of any gamma-ray emitting impurities detected
- Serial number
- Results and date of leakage test
Gamma-ray emitting impurities are determined by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry of each individual radionuclide in the mixture. The final mixture is checked for cross-contamination. In addition to the main gamma rays shown on the certificate, several low intensity gamma-ray peaks may be observed in the spectrum. The most significant are listed in the table below.
Escape peak from 1836keV peak of Y-88
Double escape peak from 1836keV peak of Y-88
Annihilation radiation from positron decay of Y-88 (may not be resolved from the 514keV peak from Sr-85)
From decay of Sn-113
From decay of Co-57
X-rays from decay of Hg-203
Sum peak from Co-60 decay (1173+1333keV)
From decay of Y-88
Recommendations on source storage and replacement
Regular improvements in source design and measurement mean that it would be good working practice to renew the sources within 10 years. For many sources, the useful working life is limited by the half life of the radionuclides. The sources should be kept out of direct sunlight and away from other sources of direct heat, to avoid the possibility of cracking the container due to thermal expansion of the resin.
Sources are normally delivered within 6 weeks from receipt of order.